The Druze community was formed during the 1st half of the 5th century of the Hijra, 11th A.D., at Wādī al-Taym at the foot of Mt. Hermon in Anti-Lebanon, in response to a Daʿwa (Divine Call), propagated from Cairo in the reign of the 6th Fāṭimid Caliph al-Ḥākim Bi-Amr Allāh (386-411AH. / 996-1021A.D.).
This call arose as an offshoot of the esoteric Ismāʿīlī-Shiʿī approach to Islam, the creed of the Fāṭimid Caliphate of Egypt, in the year 408/1017, and aimed for universal acceptance. However, due to several reasons the Daʿwa was closed in 435/1043.
Since then, the Druze call their faith madhhab al-tawḥīd (the Unitarians faith), and themselves Muwaḥḥidūn (Uniterians), in reference to their tawḥīd tenet. Ironically, the followers of this faith are popularly known as "al-Durūz", the term whose most commonly transliteration is "Druze", and currently spread over the regions of "Natural Syria", in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine
Since the closing of the Daʿwa, the Druze have formed an enclosed, self-contained community, no missionary activities, no open religious rituals, conversions into their faith is an impossibility, religious teaching is kept secret, and adjustment to their various surroundings involves “taqqiya” (dissimulation). But of all these realities, the Druze have attracted the attentions of travelers and explorers for their robust qualities. And, at the present time, Druzism is still a living, interesting force; Its followers form, particularly in Lebanon, a vigorous and flourishing community, in spite of being a small religious minority in the countries in which they are found.
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